Space-Time Behavior of Millimeter Wave Channel and Directional Medium Access Control
Doctoral Dissertation, Date: April 2008, Advisor: John S. Baras
An appropriate channel model is required to evaluate the performance of different physical (PHY) layer designs. However, there is no known space-time millimeter wave channel model that could benefit the use of directional antennas that is applicable in environments with lots of reflections such as residential or office. The millimeter wave signal strength is subject to temporal and spatial variations. The focus of the first part is the investigation of the characteristics of the millimeter wave propagation model. By analyzing measurement data of millimeter wave channels for indoor environments, space-time clusters are identified, and intercluster statistics for millimeter wave propagation are calculated. Correlation of the identified space-time clusters to the propagation environment is determined. In the second part, the effectiveness of the ray-tracing method in creating channel realizations in the intercluster and intracluster levels for millimeter wave indoor environments is validated. In the third part, a protocol to establish an optimal directional link between two nodes equipped with directional antennas is presented. The correctness of the protocol for different scenarios is illustrated using a ray-tracing tool. Then in the forth part, a Directional MAC (D-MAC) for supporting millimeter wave technology exploiting directional antennas is presented. The D-MAC is compatible with the current IEEE 802.15 MAC of WPAN, and it has backward compatibility to support devices which are not equipped with directional antennas. Finally, a directional neighbor discovery algorithm is presented which does not require time synchronization or any location information of communicating nodes. This means two nodes equipped with directional antennas can discover and communicate with each other through an established directional link as part of the D-MAC.