This course reviews the basics of solid state physics, with emphasis on semiconductors. We will begin with the crystal structures and the classical aspects of free electron theory of metals, followed by the properties of lattice vibrations. Phonons, within the harmonic crystal oscillators and anharmonic models, will then be discussed. Because of the practical need to explain many other phenomena that cannot be understood within the classical picture, the concept of band structure and Bloch states in periodic structures will be discussed. The various topics in this section are: Fermi level, Fermi-Dirac distribution, effective mass theorem, doping in semiconductors, and transport theory, including mobility, scattering mechanisms, electron temperature, screening, etc. Optical properties are to be reviewed. We will start with a general discussion on dielectric constant and fundamental excitations. Optical processes, including luminescence and Raman scattering, and their general applications, will be discussed. Surface becomes more important as devices are made smaller. We will review the important surface related physics results on semiconductors, reduced dimensions, heterojunctions, quantum wells, and the quantum Hall effect. Magnetic properties will be briefly reviewed, and the subjects include the origin of magnetism, dia- and paramagnetism. Superconductivity and tunneling diodes are to be discussed at the end.
Homework: Calculate the dispersion relation within the Kronig-Penny model, that is, the energy versus wavevector. First, follow what is in Chapter 7, Kittel, and derive the equations. But, do not simplify the barriers by delta functions. Stick to that lengthy equation and calculate and plot the dispersion relation. Find how would the dispersion relation change as (1) the barriers become wider; (2) the well becomes wider; and (3) the barriers become higher. You can use real numbers if you think it would simplify your calculation. Due 2 October 2007, in class.