Opto-Mechanical Biosensors

   Collaborators
   Research Overview
    Resonant mechanical sensors are one of the mainstays of MEMS. They are based on shifts in resonance frequency due to the added mass upon binding of the analyte. In our group, we have developed such systems for operation in fluid environments to detect biomolecules like dopamine or nucleic acids. We applied our extensive experience using the bio-derived hydrogel chitosan, which is an ideal bio-interface material and can easily be integrated in MEMS devices. Our team has also implemented optical biosensors using this novel bioreceptor coating to serve as a sensing functionalization layer. Oxidized catechol could be detected based on changes in absorbance upon binding to the chitosan. A refractive index whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator platform is currently being developed for antigen/antibody detection and monitoring. Moreover, our work has begun to branch into another novel bioreceptor coating - genetically modified, high surface area Tobacco mosaic virus and Virus-Like-Particles to bring specificity and selectivity to our resonant sensors.

    In parallel, we have worked on realizing an optical sensor system by taking advantage of the direct bandgap of InP to monolithically integrate an active source and detector with a passive optical transducer on a single substrate. An integration scheme for accomplishing this in III-V materials has been developed and implemented for a cantilever resonator sensor. This is based off our extensive experience working with the material, including characterization of its mechanical properties, optimization of molecular beam epitaxy growth techniques, and development of fabrication processes to achieve vertical high aspect ratio etches with low sidewall roughness.

   Theses
    X. Z. Fan, "An Optical Microsensor utilizing Genetically Programmed Bioreceptor Layers for Selective Sensing," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, December 2013.

    N. P. Siwak, "Fabrication and Process Development for an Integrated Optical MEMS Microsystem in Indium Phosphide," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, July 2013.

    X. Z. Fan, "Enhancement of an Indium Phosphide Resonator Sensor Microsystems through the Development of an Adaptive Feedback Circuit and Electrospray Deposition," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, February 2009.

    P. H. Dykstra, "An Optical MEMS Sensor for On-chip Catechol Detection," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, October 2008.

    J. A. McGee, "Monolithic In-Plane Tunable Optical Filter," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, February 2008.

    N. P. Siwak, "Indium Phosphide MEMS Cantilever Waveguides for Chemical Sensing with Integrated Optical Readout," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, October 2007.

    S. T. Koev, "Microcantilever Biosensors with Chitosan for the Detection of Nucleic Acids and Dopamine," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, October 2006.

    M. Powers, "Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Chitosan Based Optical Biosensor," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, July 2006. M. W. Pruessner, "Indium Phosphide Based Optical Waveguide MEMS for Communications and Sensing," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, July 2005.

    D. P. Kelly, "Monolithic Suspended Optical Waveguides for InP MOEMS," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, June 2005.

    M. W. Pruessner, "Toward III-V Optical MEMS: Mechanical Property Measurement of Indium Phosphide Using Nanoindentation, Beam Bending, and Electrostatic Testing Methods," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, October 2002.

   Journal Papers
   Conference Papers
    X. Z. Fan, L. Naves, N. P. Siwak, A. Brown, J. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Virus-like-particles for next generation micro/nano-biosensors," Hilton Head Workshop 2014: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, Hilton Head, SC, June 8-12, 2014.

    X. Z. Fan, L. Naves, N. P. Siwak, A. D. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "A Novel Virus-like-particle (VLP) Bioreceptor Coated Optical Disk Resonator for Biosensing," 2013 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2013.

    X. Z. Fan, N. P. Siwak, A. D. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Integration of functionalized biological nanostructures with conventional transducer fabrication schemes," American Vacuum Society 59th International Symposium, Tampa, FL, October 28 - November 2, 2012.

    N. P. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, R. Ghodssi, "Fabrication Processes and Technologies for Monolithic InP Microsystems," 1st EOS Topical Meeting on Micro- and Nano-Optoelectronic Systems, Bremen, Germany, December 7 - 9, 2011.

    X. Z. Fan, A. D. Brown, K. Gerasopoulos, N. P. Siwak, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Virus Directed Assembly of Receptor Peptides for Explosive Sensing," IEEE Sensors 2010, pp. 2629-2633, Waikoloa, HI, November 1-4, 2010.

    D. Hines, E. Williams, N. P. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "The Application of Nanoimprint Lithography and Transfer Printing in the Fabrication of Electronic and Mechanical Systems onto Flexible Substrates," 2009 Nanoelectronic Devices for Defense & Security (NANO-DDS), Fort Lauderdale, FL, September 28 - October 2, 2009.

    S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, J. B. Khurgin, D. P. Kelly, R. Ghodssi, "Spontaneous Raman Scattering in Suspended InGaAsP Waveguides," The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and The International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/IQEC 2009), Baltimore, MD, May 31 - June 5, 2009.

    X. Z. Fan, N. P. Siwak, S. Kanakaraju, C. Richardson, and R. Ghodssi, "A Chemical Sensing Microsystem Utilizing an Adaptive Feedback Circuit," The 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '09), pp. 1007-1010, Denver, CO, June 21 - 25, 2009.

    S. T. Koev, R. Fernandes, W. E. Bentley, and R. Ghodssi, "A Microcantilever Sensor with Integrated Optical Readout for Antimicrobial Drug Discovery," The 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '09), pp. 722-725, Denver, CO, June 21-25, 2009.

    S. T. Koev, R. Fernandes, W. E. Bentley, and R. Ghodssi, "Microcantilever Sensor Arrays with Built-in Interferometric Readout," Materials Research Society 2009 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 13-17, 2009.

    P. H. Dykstra, S. T. Koev, G. F. Payne, L. Yu, and R. Ghodssi, "Catechol Detection Using an Optical MEMS Sensor," International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices (BIODEVICES), pp. 104-108, Porto, Portugal, January 14-17, 2009.

    P. H. Dykstra, J. Hao, S. T. Koev, G. Payne, L. Yu, and R. Ghodssi, "An Optical MEMS Sensor for On-Chip Catechol Detection," IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (Biocas), Baltimore, MD, November 20-22, 2008.

    S. T. Koev, R. Fernandes, W. E. Bentley, and R. Ghodssi, "Optical Microcantilever Sensor for Liquid Samples," IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (Biocas), Baltimore, MD, November 20-22, 2008.

    N. P. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards an Integrated Chemical Sensor Microsystem Utilizing Indium Phosphide Cantilevers and a Novel Feedback Circuit," EUROPTROBE IX, pp. OB2.1, Dublin, Ireland, March 30 - April 2, 2008.

    P. H. Dykstra, J. Hao, S. T. Koev, G. F. Payne, L. Yu and R. Ghodssi, "An Optical MEMS Sensor for Catechol Detection," American Vacuum Society 55th International Symposium, Boston, MA, October 19-25, 2008.

    S. Buckhout-White, X. Luo, D. Berlin, G. F. Payne, W. E. Bentley, R. Ghodssi and G. W. Rubloff, "A platform for in-situ sensing of biomolecules using a chitosan mediated SERS substrate fabricated in microfluidics," Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems (MicroTAS), pp. 928-930, San Diego, CA, October 12-16, 2008.

    X. Z. Fan, N. P. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards a Smart Adaptive Feedback Circuit for Microsensors," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISRS 2007), College Park, MD, December 11 - 14, 2007.

    N. P. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide Resonant Chemical Sensor with a Monolithically Integrated Optical Readout Scheme," Proceedings of The 6th Annual IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE Sensors 2007), pp. 1428-1431, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, October 28 - 31, 2007.

    X. Z. Fan, N. P. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "An Adaptive Feedback Control Circuit for Resonator Sensors," American Vacuum Society 54th International Symposium, Seattle, WA, October 14 - 19, 2007.

    P. Dykstra, X. Z. Fan, M. Mischiati, L. Mosher, N. P. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "Bi-Directional Transport of Ultra-Low Volume Droplets Using Capacitive Sensing," American Vacuum Society 54th International Symposium, Seattle, WA, October 14 - 19, 2007.

    V. Badilita, I. Shamim, H. Yi, S. T. Koev, K. Gerasopoulos, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan-Mediated BioMEMS Platform for Optical Sensing," The 14th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '07), pp. 1095-1098, Lyon, France, June 10-14, 2007.

    S. T. Koev, V. Badilita, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, G. W. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan for Selective Biofunctionalization of Microsystems," Materials Research Society 2007 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 9-13, 2007.

    V. Badilita, M. A. Powers, S. T. Koev, H. Yi, and R. Ghodssi, "Integrated Biophotonic Hybridization Sensor Based on Chitosan-mediated Assembly," Photonics West 2007, p. 19, San Jose, CA, January 20-25, 2007.

    N. P. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, D. Hines, E. Williams, N. Goldsman, and R. Ghodssi, "Chemical Sensor Utilizing Indium Phosphide Cantilevers and Pentacene as a Functionalization Layer," Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2007), pp. 489-492, Kobe, Japan, January 21 - 25, 2007.

    S. T. Koev, L-Q. Wu, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "A Biomimetic MEMS Neurotransmitter Detector," Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems (MicroTAS), pp. 1250-1252, Tokyo, Japan, November 5-9, 2006.

    R. Ghodssi, "InP-based MEMS and NEMS devices for biosensing," SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, San Diego, CA, August 13-17, 2006 (Invited).

    N. P. Siwak, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide Optical MEMS for Chemical and Biological Sensing," Proceedings of the IEEE/NLM Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop, pp. 86-87, Bethesda, MD, July 13-14, 2006.

    N. P. Siwak, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "InP Optical MEMS for Integrated Sensing and Photonics Applications," 2006 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2006), Open Poster Session, Hilton Head, SC, June 4-8, 2006.

    N. P. Siwak, M. W. Pruessner, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide MEMS for Integrated Bio-Sensing," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium 2005 (ISDRS 2005), Bethesda, MD, December 7-9, 2005.

    J. McGee, N. P. Siwak, B. Morgan, and R. Ghodssi, "In-Plane Indium Phosphide Tunable Optical Filter Using Ridge Waveguides," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium 2005 (ISDRS 2005), Bethesda, MD, December 7-9, 2005.

    S. T. Koev, M. A. Powers, H. Yi, and R. Ghodssi, "Toward a Chitosan-Based Micromechanical Biosensor," American Vacuum Society 52nd International Symposium, Boston, MA, October 30 - November 4, 2005.

    J. McGee, N. P. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "Monolithic In-Plane Tunable Optical Filter," American Vacuum Society 52nd International Symposium, Boston, MA, October 30 - November 4, 2005.

    M. W. Pruessner, W.-H. Chuang, K. Amarnath, S. Kanakaraju, and Reza Ghodssi, "Micromechanical Resonators with Integrated Optical Waveguides for Sensing Applications," Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 761-763, Baltimore, MD, May 22-27.

    M. Datta, J. McGee, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, "Tunable optical filters for in-plane integration on InP MEMS platform," SPIE Microtechnologies for the New Millenium Conference (EMT2005), Sevilla, Spain, May 9-11, 2005.

    M. W. Pruessner, M. Datta, K. Amarnath, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide Based MEMS End-Coupled Optical Waveguide Switches," Proceedings of the 17th Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference (IPRM 2005), pp. 110-113, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K., May 8-12, 2005.

    M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, "Wavelength-Selective Integrated Optical MEMS Filter in InP," Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2005), pp. 88-91, Miami, FL, January 30-February 3, 2005.

    M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, D. P. Kelly, and R. Ghodssi, "Suspended Waveguide-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Filters on Indium Phosphide MEMS Platform," American Vacuum Society 51stInternational Symposium Anaheim, CA, November 14-19, 2004.

    M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, M. Datta, D. Kelly, S. Kanakaraju, P. T. Ho and R. Ghodssi, "Optical and Mechanical Characterization of an Evanescent Coupler Optical Switch," Technical Digest of the 2004 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2004), pp. 238-241, Hilton Head Island, SC, June 6-10, 2004.

    M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, D. Kelly and R. Ghodssi, "MEMS-Tunable Novel Monolithic Optical Filters in InP with Horizontal Bragg Mirrors," Proceedings of the 2003 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 282, Washington D.C., December 10-12, 2003.

    D. Kelly, M. W. Pruessner, M. Datta and R. Ghodssi, "Suspended Waveguides for InP Optical MEMS," Proceedings of the 2003 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 496, Washington D.C., December 10-12, 2003.

    M. W. Pruessner, D. Kelly, M. Datta, H. Lim, R. Maboudian and R. Ghodssi, "Design and fabrication of an InP-based Moving Waveguide 1x2 Optical MEMS Switch," Proceedings of the 2003 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 280, Washington D.C., December 10-12, 2003.

    M. W. Pruessner, T. King, D. Kelly and R. Ghodssi, "Micro-Mechanical Characterization of Indium Phosphide (InP) for Active Optical MEMS Applications," American Vacuum Society 49th International Symposium, Denver, CO, November 3-8, 2002.

    M. W. Pruessner, T. King, D. Kelly and R. Ghodssi, "Towards III-V Optical MEMS: Mechanical Property Measurement of Indium Phosphide," 2002 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2002), Open Poster Session, Hilton Head, SC, June 2-6, 2002.

    M. W. Pruessner, R. Grover, L. Calhoun and R. Ghodssi, "Development of InP-based Test Structures for Optical MEMS Applications," Proceedings of the 2001 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 178-181, Washington D.C., December 5-7, 2001.