III-V MEMS for Integrative Optical Microsystems

   Collaborators
   Research Overview
    The III-V MEMS group is studying the integration of optoelectronic materials such as indium phosphide (InP) with MEMS for novel optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) communications, and bio-sensing applications. Initially, our group focused on the mechanical characterization of InP to study its suitability for MEMS. This included Young's modulus and stress measurements, as well as optimization of epitaxial growth techniques and stress engineering using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). As part of this process, a fabrication technique was developed to fabricate moveable waveguides, providing deep etching capabilities with vertical sidewalls (better than 89 degrees) and low sidewall roughness (less than 50 nm). Previous work has included suspended waveguide technology, cantilever all-optical waveguide switches, evanescent waveguide switches, and in-plane tunable filters for WDM applications. Monolithic integration of these InP-based devices with additional active optical elements will enable novel system for optical communications. Our most recent work has focused on utilizing our previous technologies for the development of an InP resonant cantilever waveguide chemical sensing platform. The monolithic integration of active optical elements such as sources and detectors with passive elements like resonators and waveguides allow for stand-alone single chip sensors to be realized. Additionally, our work has begun to branch into the development of a new type of coating to serve as a sensing functionalization layer. Research into the high surface area tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genetically modified with TNT specific receptors is being conducted in order to bring specificity and selectivity to our resonant sensors here at MSAL. Our group is using ring resonators fabricated in-house as a characterization platform for this novel sensor coating material.

   Thesis
    X. Z. Fan, "Enhancement of an Indium Phosphide Resonator Sensor Microsystems through the Development of an Adaptive Feedback Circuit and Electrospray Deposition," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, February 2009.

    J. A. McGee, "Monolithic In-Plane Tunable Optical Filter," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, February 2008.

    N. P. Siwak, "Indium Phosphide MEMS Cantilever Waveguides for Chemical Sensing with Integrated Optical Readout," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, October 2007.

    M. W. Pruessner, "Indium Phosphide Based Optical Waveguide MEMS for Communications and Sensing," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, July 2005.

    D. P. Kelly, "Monolithic Suspended Optical Waveguides for InP MOEMS," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, June 2005.

    M. W. Pruessner, "Toward III-V Optical MEMS: Mechanical Property Measurement of Indium Phosphide Using Nanoindentation, Beam Bending, and Electrostatic Testing Methods," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, October 2002.

   Journal Papers
   Conference Papers
    F. Zang, H. Ben-Yoav, X. Z. Fan, A. D. Brown, D. L. Kelly, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Sensors", 10th International Workshop on Nanomechanical Sensing (NMC 2013), Stanford, CA, May 1-3, 2013.

    X. Z. Fan, L. Naves, N. P. Siwak, A. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "A Novel Virus-like-particle (VLP) Bioreceptor Coated Optical Disk Resonator for Biosensing," 2013 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2013.

    F. Zang, H. Ben-Yoav, X. Z. Fan, A. D. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)-based Electrochemical Detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)", American Vacuum Society 59th International Symposium, Tampa, FL, October 28 - November 2, 2012.

    X. Z. Fan, N. P. Siwak, A. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Integration of functionalized biological nanostructures with conventional transducer fabrication schemes," American Vacuum Society 59th International Symposium, Tampa, FL, October 28 - November 2, 2012.

    N. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, R. Ghodssi, "Fabrication Processes and Technologies for Monolithic InP Microsystems," 1st EOS Topical Meeting on Micro- and Nano-Optoelectronic Systems, Bremen, Germany, December 7 - 9, 2011.

    X. Z. Fan, A. Brown, K. Gerasopoulos, N. P. Siwak, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Virus Directed Assembly of Receptor Peptides for Explosive Sensing," IEEE Sensors 2010, Waikoloa, HI, November 1-4 2010.

    D. Hines, E. Williams, N. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "The Application of Nanoimprint Lithography and Transfer Printing in the Fabrication of Electronic and Mechanical Systems onto Flexible Substrates," 2009 Nanoelectronic Devices for Defense & Security (NANO-DDS), Fort Lauderdale, FL, September 28-October 2, 2009.

    S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, J. B. Khurgin, D. P. Kelly, R. Ghodssi, "Spontaneous Raman Scattering in Suspended InGaAsP Waveguides," The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and The International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/IQEC 2009), Baltimore, MD, May 31 - June 5, 2009.

    X. Z. Fan, N. Siwak, S. Kanakaraju, C. Richardson, and R. Ghodssi, "A Chemical Sensing Microsystem Utilizing an Adaptive Feedback Circuit," The 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '09), Denver, CO, June 21 - 25, 2009.

    N. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards an Integrated Chemical Sensor Microsystem Utilizing Indium Phosphide Cantilevers and a Novel Feedback Circuit," EUROPTROBE IX, Dublin, Ireland, March 30 - April 2, 2008.

    X. Z. Fan, N. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards a Smart Adaptive Feedback Circuit for Microsensors," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISRS 2007), College Park, MD, December 11 - 14, 2007.

    N. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide Resonant Chemical Sensor with a Monolithically Integrated Optical Readout Scheme," Proceedings of The 6th Annual IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE Sensors 2007), Atlanta, Georgia, USA, October 28 - 31, 2007.

    X. Z. Fan, N. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "An Adaptive Feedback Control Circuit for Resonator Sensors," American Vacuum Society 54th International Symposium, Seattle, WA, October 14 - 19, 2007.

    P. Dykstra, X. Z. Fan, M. Mischiati, L. Mosher, N. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "Bi-Directional Transport of Ultra-Low Volume Droplets Using Capacitive Sensing," American Vacuum Society 54th International Symposium, Seattle, WA, October 14 - 19, 2007.

    N. Siwak, X. Z. Fan, D. Hines, E. Williams, N. Goldsman, and R. Ghodssi, "Chemical Sensor Utilizing Indium Phosphide Cantilevers and Pentacene as a Functionalization Layer," Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2007), pp. 489-492, Kobe, Japan, January 21 - 25, 2007.

    R. Ghodssi, "InP-based MEMS and NEMS devices for biosensing," SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, San Diego, CA, August 13-17, 2006 (Invited).

    N. Siwak, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide Optical MEMS for Chemical and Biological Sensing," Proceedings of the IEEE/NLM Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop, pp. 86-87, Bethesda, MD, July 13-14, 2006.

    N. Siwak, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "InP Optical MEMS for Integrated Sensing and Photonics Applications," 2006 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2006), Open Poster Session, Hilton Head, SC, June 4-8, 2006.

    N. Siwak, M. W. Pruessner, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide MEMS for Integrated Bio-Sensing," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium 2005 (ISDRS 2005), Bethesda, MD, December 7-9, 2005.

    J. McGee, N. Siwak, B. Morgan, and R. Ghodssi, "In-Plane Indium Phosphide Tunable Optical Filter Using Ridge Waveguides," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium 2005 (ISDRS 2005), Bethesda, MD, December 7-9, 2005.

    J. McGee, N. Siwak, and R. Ghodssi, "Monolithic In-Plane Tunable Optical Filter," American Vacuum Society 52nd International Symposium, Boston, MA, October 30 - November 4, 2005.

    M. W. Pruessner, W.-H. Chuang, K. Amarnath, S. Kanakaraju, and Reza Ghodssi, "Micromechanical Resonators with Integrated Optical Waveguides for Sensing Applications," Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 761-763, Baltimore, MD, May 22-27.

    M. Datta, J. McGee, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, "Tunable optical filters for in-plane integration on InP MEMS platform," SPIE Microtechnologies for the New Millenium Conference (EMT2005), Sevilla, Spain, May 9-11, 2005.

    M. W. Pruessner, M. Datta, K. Amarnath, S. Kanakaraju, and R. Ghodssi, "Indium Phosphide Based MEMS End-Coupled Optical Waveguide Switches," Proceedings of the 17th Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference (IPRM 2005), pp. 110-113, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K., May 8-12, 2005.

    M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, J. McGee, S. Kanakaraju, and R.Ghodssi, "Wavelength-Selective Integrated Optical MEMS Filter in InP," Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2005), pp. 88-91, Miami, FL, January 30-February 3, 2005.

    M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, D. P. Kelly, and R. Ghodssi, "Suspended Waveguide-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Filters on Indium Phosphide MEMS Platform," American Vacuum Society 51stInternational Symposium Anaheim, CA, November 14-19, 2004.

    M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, M. Datta, D. Kelly, S. Kanakaraju, P.T. Ho and R. Ghodssi, "Optical and Mechanical Characterization of an Evanescent Coupler Optical Switch," Technical Digest of the 2004 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2004), pp. 238-241, Hilton Head Island, SC, June 6-10, 2004.

    M. Datta, M. W. Pruessner, D. Kelly and R. Ghodssi, "MEMS-Tunable Novel Monolithic Optical Filters in InP with Horizontal Bragg Mirrors," Proceedings of the 2003 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 282, Washington, DC, December 10-12, 2003.

    D. Kelly, M. W. Pruessner, M. Datta and R. Ghodssi, "Suspended Waveguides for InP Optical MEMS," Proceedings of the 2003 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS),i pp. 496, Washington, DC, December 10-12, 2003.

    M. W. Pruessner, D. Kelly, M. Datta, H.Lim, R. Maboudian and R. Ghodssi, "Design and fabrication of an InP-based Moving Waveguide 1x2 Optical MEMS Switch," Proceedings of the 2003 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 280, Washington, DC, December 10-12, 2003.

    M. W. Pruessner, T. King, D. Kelly and R. Ghodssi, "Micro-Mechanical Characterization of Indium Phosphide (InP) for Active Optical MEMS Applications," American Vacuum Society 49th International Symposium, Denver, CO, November 3-8, 2002.

    M. W. Pruessner, T. King, D. Kelly and R. Ghodssi, "Towards III-V Optical MEMS: Mechanical Property Measurement of Indium Phosphide," 2002 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2002), Open Poster Session, Hilton Head, SC, June 2-6, 2002.

    M. W. Pruessner, R. Grover, L. Calhoun and R. Ghodssi, "Development of InP-based Test Structures for Optical MEMS Applications," Proceedings of the 2001 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 178-181, Washington, DC, December 5-7, 2001.