Power MEMS Devices based on Micro Ball Bearing Technology

   Collaborators
   Research Overview
    Microball-bearing technology for MEMS is very promising for micromachinery applications. The advantages of using microball bearings are low friction and wear, stability of moving parts, robustness, long-term reliability, and simplicity of fabrication. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a reliable, robust, high performance Power MEMS by developing microball-bearing-supported devices. These devices include a linear variable-capacitance micromotor, a rotary variable-capacitance micromotor-microgenerator, and a centrifugal micropump. The research is mainly focused on design, fabrication, and characterization of these devices. Low-dielectric-constant benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer is used as an electrical insulator for reducing the parasitic losses of the electrostatic micromachines. In conjunction with linear and rotary micromotors, we are developing an integrated feedback system for optimum machine control using metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes for position sensing. We are also interested in tribological behavior of microball-bearing technology i.e. friction, wear, and reliability.

    This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 0901411

   Thesis
    B. Hanrahan, "Tribology of Microball Bearing MEMS," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, February 2013.

    M. I. Beyaz, "Closed-Loop Control of a Micropositioner Using Integrated Photodiode Sensors," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, August 2008.

    C. M. Waits, "Microtrurbopump Utilizing Microball Bearings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, May 2008.

    A. Modafe, "Benzocyclobutene-Based Electric Micromachines Supported on Microball Bearings: Design, Fabrication, and Characterization," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, September 2007.

    N. Ghalichechian, "Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of a Rotary Variable-Capacitance Micromotor Supported on Microball Bearings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, July, 2007.

    N. Ghalichechian, "Integration of Benzocyclobutene Polymers and Silicon Micromachined Structures Fabricated with Anisotropic Wet Etching, " Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, March 2005.

    C. M. Waits, "Investigation of Gray-scale Technology for Large Area 3-D Silicon Structures," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, April 2003.

    Ta-Wei Lin, "Modeling and Experimental Measurement of Dynamic Friction in MEMS-based Micro-ball Bearing," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, December 2001.

   Journal Papers
   Journal Papers related to this Project
   Conference Papers
    B. Hanrahan, S. Misra, J. Feldman, C. M. Waits, and R. Ghodssi, "Isotropically-etched, Deep-groove Microball Bearing Systems", Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2012), pp. 355-358, Atlanta, GA, December 2-5, 2012.

    S. Misra, B. Hanrahan, J. Feldman, and R. Ghodssi, "Vapor Phase Lubrication for High Performance Rotary MEMS Applications", Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2012), pp. 359-362, Atlanta, Ga, December 2-5, 2012.

    S. Misra, B. Hanrahan, and R. Ghodssi, "Isolating the Adhesive Component of Micro-Scale Rolling Friction via Vapor-Phase Lubrication," American Vacuum Society 59th International Symposium, Tampa, FL, October 28 - November 2, 2012.

    B. Hanrahan, M. I. Beyaz, M.McCarthy, C. M. Waits, and R. Ghodssi, "A New Performance Regime For Microfabricated Ball Bearings," Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010), pp. 191-194, Leuven, Belgium, November 30 - December 3, 2010.

    M. I. Beyaz, B. Hanrahan, and R. Ghodssi, "A Microfabricated Rotor Supported On Microball Bearings With Integrated Permanent Magnets", Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010), pp. 167-171, Leuven, Belgium, November 30 - December 3, 2010.

    M. I. Beyaz, M. McCarthy, and R. Ghodssi, "Fabrication of High-Aspect Ratio Metal Structures with Planar Surfaces for Power MEMS Devices," Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), pp. 586-588, Washington D.C., December 1-4, 2009.

    B. Hanrahan, M. McCarthy, J. Balsam, C. M. Waits, H. Bruck, and R. Ghodssi, "Hard Film Coatings for High-Speed Rotary MEMS Supported on Microball Bearings," Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), pp. 589-592, Washington D.C., December 1-4, 2009.

    C. M. Waits, M. McCarthy, and R. Ghodssi, "A MEMS Turbopump for Fuel Delivery in Small-scale Power Systems," The 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '09), pp. 644-647, Denver, CO, June 21-25, 2009.

    M. McCarthy, C. M. Waits, M. I. Beyaz, and R. Ghodssi, "A Rotary Microactuator Supported on Encapsulated Microball Bearings Using an Electro-Pneumatic Thrust Balance," Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2009), pp. 1095-1098, Sorrento, Italy, January 15-29, 2009.

    M. McCarthy, M. I. Beyaz, C. M. Waits, and R. Ghodssi, "An Electro-Pneumatic Thrust Balance for Small-Scale Energy Conversion Using Encapsulated Rotary Microball Bearings," Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS '08), pp. 129-132, Sendai, Japan, November 9-12, 2008.

    M. I. Beyaz, M. McCarthy, N. Ghalichechian, and R. Ghodssi, "Photodiode Position Sensors for Integrated Feedback Control of a Long-Range Micropositioner", Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE SENSORS Conference, pp. 803-806, Lecce, Italy, October 26-29, 2008.

    M. McCarthy, C. M. Waits, and R. Ghodssi, "Dynamic Friction and Microturbine Performance Using a Planar-Contact Encapsulated Microball Bearing", Proceedings of the 2008 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator, and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 170-173, Hilton Head Island, SC, June 1-5, 2008.

    N. Ghalichechian, M. McCarthy, M. I. Beyaz, R. Ghodssi, "Measurement and Modeling of Friction in Linear and Rotary Micromotors Supported on Microball Bearings," Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2008), pp. 507-510, Tucson, AZ, USA, January 13-17, 2008.

    M. I. Beyaz, N. Ghalichechian, and R. Ghodssi, "Toward an Autonomous Electrostatic Micromotor: Integrated Feedback Control", Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2008), pp. 483-486, Tucson, AZ, USA, January 13-17, 2008.

    M. I. Beyaz, N. Ghalichechian, and R. Ghodssi, "Toward Smart Micromachines with Integrated Feedback Control," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISRS 2007), College Park, MD, December 11-14, 2007.

    M. McCarthy, C. M. Waits and R. Ghodssi, "Development of a Hybrid Gas / Ball Bearing Support Mechanism for Microturbomachinery," Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Application (Power MEMS '07), pp. 241-244, Freiburg, Germany, November 28-29, 2007.

    M. McCarthy, B. Hanrahan, C. Zorman, and R. Ghodssi, "Rolling Friction in MEMS Ball Bearings: The Effects of Loading and Solid Film Lubrication," STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference, San Diego, CA, October 22-24, 2007.

    B. Hanrahan, M. McCarthy, C. Zorman, and R. Ghodssi, "Wear in MEMS-Based Microball Bearings," American Vacuum Society 54th International Symposium, Seattle, WA, October 14-19, 2007.

    M. I. Beyaz, N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards Feedback Control with Integrated Position Sensing in Micromachines," American Vacuum Society 54th International Symposium, Seattle, WA, October 14-19, 2007.

    C. M. Waits, N. R. Jankowski, B. Geil, and R. Ghodssi, "MEMS Rotary Actuator using an Integrated Ball Bearing and Air Turbine", The 14th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, and Microsystems (Transducers '07), pp. 1131-1134, Lyon, France, June 10-14, 2007.

    N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe, M. I. Beyaz, and R. Ghodssi, "A Rotary Micromotor Supported on Microball Bearings," The 14th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '07), pp. 1123-1126, Lyon, France, June 10-14, 2007.

    C. M. Waits, R. Ghodssi, and B. Geil "Rotary Ball Bearing Platform for Advanced Power MEMS Components," Sixth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS '06), pp. 149-152, Berkeley, CA, November 29 - December 1, 2006.

    M. Khbeis and R. Ghodssi, "Design of a hybrid ambient low frequency, low intensity vibration energy scavenger," Sixth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS '06), pp. 287-290, Berkeley, CA, November 29 - December 1, 2006.

    N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe, M. I. Beyaz, C. M. Waits, and R. Ghodssi, "Design and Fabrication of a Rotary, Electrostatic Micromotor Supported on Microball Bearings," Sixth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS '06), pp. 227-230, Berkeley, CA, USA, November 29 - December 1, 2006.

    N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe, M. I. Beyaz, and R. Ghodssi, "Chemical Mechanical Planarization of BCB Polymer Films: Effect of Cure Temperature," American Vacuum Society 53rd International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, November 12-17, 2006.

    N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe, A. Frey, J. H. Lang, and R. Ghodssi, "Dynamic Characterization of a Linear Variable-Capacitance Micromotor," 2006 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator, and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 19-22, Hilton Head Island, June 4-8, 2006.

    S. Moghaddam, K. T. Kiger, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, "A Novel Benzocyclobutene-Based Device for Studying the Physics of the Ebullition Process," 2006 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator, and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 136-139, Hilton Head Island, SC, June 4-8, 2006.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, A. Frey, J. H. Lang, and R. Ghodssi, "Microball-Bearing-Supported Electrostatic Micromachines with Polymer Dielectric Films for Electromechanical Power Conversion," Fifth International Workshop on Micro Nano Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, pp. 173-176, Tokyo, Japan, November 28-30, 2005.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, and R. Ghodssi, "Multilevel Interconnection and Isolation for Electro-static MEMS Using Embedded Benzocyclobutene in Silicon Process," 22nd International VLSI/ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (2005 VMIC), pp. 309-316, Fremont, CA, October 3-6, 2005 (Invited Paper).

    X. Tan, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, "Modeling of Velocity-Dependent Rolling Friction in Linear Microball bearings," ASME 2005 World Tribology Conference III, Washington D.C., September 12-16, 2005.

    X. Tan, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, "An Empirical Model for Dynamic Friction in Microfabricated Linear Microball Bearings," The 24th American Control Conference (ACC 2005), pp. 2463-2468, Portland, OR, June 8-10, 2005.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, J. H. Lang, and R. Ghodssi, "A Microball-Bearing-Supported Linear Electrostatic Micromotor with Benzocyclobutene Polymer Insulating Layers," The 13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '05), pp. 693-696, Seoul, Korea, June 5-9, 2005.

    N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe, P. Lazzeri, V. Micheli, M. Anderle, and R. Ghodssi, "Characterization of Benzocyclobutene and Chromium-gold Film Interface for Application in Silicon Micromachining," Materials Research Society 2005 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, March 28-April 1, 2005.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, and R. Ghodssi, "Embedded Benzocyclobutene Islands in Silicon (EBIS) Process for Fabrication of Electrostatic Microelectromechanical Devices," Materials Research Society 2005 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, March 28-April 1, 2005.

    A. Modafe,  N. Ghalichechian, and R. Ghodssi, "BCB-Based Linear Micromotor Supported on Microball Bearings: Design Concepts, Characterization, and Fabrication Development, American Vacuum Society 51st International Symposium Anaheim, CA, November 14-19, 2004.

    X. Tan, A. Modafe, R. Hergert, N. Ghalichechian, B. Shapiro, J. S. Baras, and R. Ghodssi, "Vision-Based Microtribological Characterization of Linear Microball Bearings," ASME/STLE International Joint Tribology Conference, Special Symposium on Contact Mechanics in MEMS, pp. 23-28, Long Beach, CA, October 24-27, 2004.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, P. Lazzeri, M. Anderle, and R. Ghodssi, "BCB-Based MEMS Technology: Electrical Characterization and Integration with Silicon Micromachining," 2004 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop, Open Poster Session, Hilton Head Island, SC, June 6-10, 2004.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, B. Kleber and R. Ghodssi, "Electrical Characterization of BCB for Electrostatic Microelectromehanical Devices," Proceedings of Materials Research Society 2003 Fall Meeting, Boston, MA, December 1-5, 2003.

    N. Ghalichechian, A. Modafe and R. Ghodssi, "Integration of Silicon Anisotropic Wet Etching and BCB Processes," American Vacuum Society 50th International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 2-7, 2003.

    A. Modafe, N. Ghalichechian, B. Kleber and R. Ghodssi, "A New Approach to Electrical Characterization of Spin-on Dielectrics for Power MEMS Applications," American Vacuum Society 49th International Symposium, Denver, CO, November 3-8, 2002.

    T-W. Lin, A. Modafe, B. Shapiro and R. Ghodssi, "Experimental Characterization of Dynamic Friction of Micro-ball Bearings," 2002 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop, Open Poster Session, Hilton Head, SC, June 2-6, 2002.

    T-W. Lin, D. Wendland, B. Shapiro and R. Ghodssi, "Measurement of Rolling Friction for MEMS Applications," American Vacuum Society 48th International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, October 28 - November 2, 2001.