Electrochemical Biosensors
   Collaborators
   Research Overview
    Electrochemical biosensors present numerous advantages, as they do not require labels, are relatively simple to implement (requiring only electrodes), and extremely sensitive instruments are available for readout. One challenge is the interface between the microfabricated device and the bio-environment. We implement novel ways of using biomaterials to bridge these two worlds, forming the basis for future high-sensitivity medical diagnostics, biohazard detection, and environmental monitoring.

    Aiming at developing a more universal platform for fast and on-site detection of chemical explosives, our team is introducing biofunctional macromolecules - Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV) - to electrochemical sensors which boosts the performances and enables multiplexing. TMV is a high aspect ratio plant virus that can be genetically engineered to display specific residues and a large number of receptors on its outer surface. The TMV with mutated structures and affinities can work as sensing probe. This "probe" is capable of self-assembling on device surfaces and changing the redox behaviors of targeting molecules selectively in electrochemical analysis. Moreover, microscale electrochemical sensors with different kinds of TMV mutations can potentially be applied to the development of portable chemical sensors or sensor networks for long-term monitoring of chemical levels in the environment.

    We also have extensive experience using the bio-derived hydrogel chitosan, which is an ideal bio-interface material and can easily be integrated on electrochemical sensors through electrodeposition. Our most recent work focuses on applying that expertise towards a field where only few other BioMEMS devices have been presented - personalized medicine. Specifically, we are working on a lab-on-a-chip system for therapeutic drug monitoring. Towards this goal, we have developed an electrochemically-active catechol-modified chitosan system for the amplification of the electrochemical signal generated by certain drugs. Implemented in a point-of-care microsystem, this would allow clinicians to monitor efficacy of and adherence to medication, improving treatment success rates by providing them a quantitative basis for rapidly adjusting dosages or implementing interventions.

   Theses
    P. H. Dykstra, "Arrayed Electrochemical Detection of Biomolecules in a Valve-Actuated Microfluidic Device," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, July 2011.

   Journal Papers
   Conference Papers
    R. Dietrich, T. E. Winkler, H. Ben-Yoav S. E. Chocron, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "The Interplay of Electrode Materials and Biomaterials in a Catechol-Modified Chitosan-Based Sensor for Clozapine Detection," American Vacuum Society 61st International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 9-14, 2014.

    F. Zang, X. Z. Fan, K. Gerasopoulos, L. Naves, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "An Impedance Microsensor with Virus-like-particle Nanoreceptors for Accelarated ELISA-on-a-chip," Hilton Head Workshop 2014: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 171-174, Hilton Head, SC, June 8-12, 2014.

    T. E. Winkler, H. Ben-Yoav, D. L. Kelly, and R. Ghodssi, "Microsystem for Particle Counting and Sizing with Tunable Sensitivity and Throughput," Hilton Head Workshop 2014: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 251-254, Hilton Head, SC, June 8-12, 2014.

    D. L. Kelly, H. Ben-Yoav, V. Stock, T. E. Winkler, G. F. Payne, S. E. Chocron, E. Kim, G Vyas, R. C. Love, H. J. Wehring, K. M. Sullivan, S. Feldman, F. Liu, R. P. McMahon, and R. Ghodssi, "Development of a Lab-on-a-Chip Biosensor for Clozapine Monitoring," ACNP 52nd Annual Meeting, Hollywood, FL, December 8-12, 2013.

    H. Ben-Yoav, T. E. Winkler, S. E. Chocron, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne and R. Ghodssi, "Biosensor Device for Clozapine Treatment Monitoring in Schizophrenia", Entrepreneur Expo 2013: Maryland Innovation Initiative (MII) Session, Baltimore, MD, November 18, 2013 (Invited talk).

    F. Zang, X. Z. Fan, K. D. Gerasopoulos, H. Ben-Yoav, A. D. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Scale-down Effects: Towards Miniaturization of an Electrochemical Sensor using Biomolecules," IEEE Sensors 2013, pp. 1408-1411, Baltimore, MD, November 4-6, 2013.

    H. Ben-Yoav, S. E. Chocron, T. E. Winkler, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "The Effect of Vitamin C in Point-of-Care Blood Analysis Using an Electrochemical Biosensor," IEEE Sensors 2013, pp. 141-144, Baltimore, MD, November 4-6, 2013.

    H. Ben-Yoav, T. E. Winkler, S. E. Chocron, G. R. Costa, S. M. Restaino, N. Woolsey, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards personalized mental healthcare: An electrochemically-amplified biosensor for clozapine antipsychotic treatment monitoring," The 17th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS 2013), pp. 1167-1169, Freiburg, Germany, October 27-31, 2013.

    T. E. Winkler, H. Ben-Yoav, S. E. Chocron, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "Electrochemical Interference in a Catechol-Modified Chitosan Redox Cycling Amplification System for Clozapine Detection", 224th ECS Meeting, San Francisco, CA, October 27-November 1, 2013.

    H. Ben-Yoav, T. E. Winkler, S. E. Chocron, S. Restaino, G. Costa, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "Bio-amplifying Lab-on-a-chip For Antipsyhcotic Clozapine Treatment Monitoring," The 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers '13), pp. 317-320, Barcelona, Spain, June 16-20, 2013.

    F. Zang, H. Ben-Yoav, X. Z. Fan, A. D. Brown, D. L. Kelly, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Sensors," 10th International Workshop on Nanomechanical Sensing (NMC 2013), pp. 161-162, Stanford, CA, May 1-3, 2013.

    H. Ben-Yoav, T. E. Winkler, E. Kim, D. L. Kelly, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "Catechol-modified Chitosan System as a Bio-amplifier for Schizophrenia Treatment Analysis," 2013 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2013.

    F. Zang, H. Ben-Yoav, X. Z. Fan, A. D. Brown, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)-based Electrochemical Detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)," American Vacuum Society 59th International Symposium, Tampa, FL, October 28 - November 2, 2012.

    H. Ben-Yoav, E. Pomerantseva, M. Gnerlich, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanotemplates for Next Generation Energy Storage and Electrochemical Sensing," 2012 ONR Naval Science and Technology Partnership Conference, Arlington, VA, October 22-24, 2012.

    H. Ben-Yoav, A. D. Brown, E. Pomerantseva, D. L. Kelly, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco Mosaic Virus Biotemplated Electrochemical Biosensor," Hilton Head Workshop 2012: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 193-196, Hilton Head, SC, June 3-7, 2012.

    H. Ben-Yoav, P. H. Dykstra, W. E. Bentley, and R. Ghodssi, "A Programmable Microfluidic Electrochemical Nano-Biochip for Label-Free Diffusion-Restricted DNA Hybridization Analysis," Biosensors 2012, pp. 7C-1, Cancun, Mexico, May 15-18, 2012.

    H. Ben-Yoav, P. H. Dykstra, W. E. Bentley, and R. Ghodssi, "A Microfluidic-based Electrochemical Nano-Biochip for Label-Free Diffusion-Restricted DNA Hybridization Analysis," Biosensors 2012, pp. P1-45, Cancun, Mexico, May 15-18, 2012.

    P. H. Dykstra, V. Roy, W. E. Bentley and R. Ghodssi, "A Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor Array for Characterizing Protein Interactions with Various Surface Chemistries," IEEE Sensors 2010, pp. 2486-2489, Waikoloa, HI, November 1-4, 2010.

    P. H. Dykstra, V. Roy, C. Byrd, W. E. Bentley and R. Ghodssi, "An Electrochemical DNA Sensor for Concentration Detection of the Small Molecule Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate," Biosensors 2010, pp. P3.1.069, Glaskow, UK, May 26-28, 2010.

    X.-W. Shi, X. Yang, Y. Liu, P. Dykstra, G. W. Rubloff, R. Ghodssi, W.E. Bentley, and G.F. Payne, "Stimulus responsive biopolymers for protein and cell electroaddressing," The 238th ACS National Meeting, Washington D.C., August 16-20, 2009.

    Y. Liu, X.-W. Shi, E. Kim, L. M. Robinson, C. K. Nye, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, W.E. Bentley, and G.F. Payne, "Chitosan to Electroaddress Biological Components on Lab-on-a-Chip Devices," 11th International Conference on Chitin and Chitosan and 8th Asia-Pacific Chitin and Chitosan Symposium, Taipei, Taiwan, June 6-9, 2009.

    S. T. Koev, P. H. Dykstra, G. W. Rubloff, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan for MEMS," International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices (BIODEVICES), pp. 109-112, Porto, Portugal, January 14-17, 2009.

    X. Luo, D. Berlin, S. Buckhout-White, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi and G. W. Rubloff, "Minimizing parasitic reactions for enzyme-controlled metabolic pathways investigated in BIOMEMS," Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems (MicroTAS), pp. 1039-1041, San Diego, CA, October 12-16, 2008.

    X. Luo, A. T. Lewandowski, D. Berlin, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley, and G. W. Rubloff, "Applications and Improvements of BioMEMS for Chitosan-mediated Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity," Proceedings of the First Shenyang International Colloquium on Microfluidics (SICOM I), pp. 204-207, Shenyang, China, October 21-24, 2007.

    X. Luo, A. T. Lewandowski, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley, and G. W. Rubloff, "Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity in a Reusable BioMEMS Plateform for Metabolic Engineering," Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS), pp. 1616-1618, Paris, France, October 7-11, 2007.

    X. Luo, A. T. Lewandowski, H. Yi, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley, and G. W. Rubloff, "Signal-Guided Sequential Assembly of Nano-Bio-Components in a Completely Packaged Microfluidic Environment," Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS), pp. 784-786, Paris, France, October 7-11, 2007.

    A. T. Lewandowski, X. Luo, H. Yi, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, and W. E. Bentley, "Programmable assembly of metabolic pathway enzymes onto patterned microfabricated devices," BMES 2007 Annual Fall Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, September 26-29, 2007.

    X. Luo, J. J. Park, H. Yi, A. T. Lewandowski, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi, and G. W. Rubloff, "Chitosan-mediated Enzyme Assembly toward Rebuilding a Metabolic Pathway in the Microfluidic Environment," Materials Research Society 2007 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 9-13, 2007.

    S. T. Koev, V. Badilita, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, G. W. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan for Selective Biofunctionalization of Microsystems," Materials Research Society 2007 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 9-13, 2007.

    X. Luo, J. J. Park, H. Yi, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, "Biomolecule Assembly and Functionality in Completely Packaged Microfluidic Devices," American Vacuum Society 53rd International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, November 12-17, 2006.

    R. Ghodssi, S. T. Koev, M. A. Powers, V. Badilita, H. Yi, L.-Q. Wu, W. E. Bentley, G. W. Rubloff,and G. F. Payne, "Chitosan: an Interface between Biology and Microsystems," 10th ICC - International Conference on Chiten & Chitosan, Montpellier, France, September 6-9, 2006, Invited Talk.

    S. T. Koev, M. A. Powers, V. Badilita, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, G. W. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan for Biofunctionalization of Microsystems," Proceedings of the IEEE/NLM Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop, pp. 100-101, Bethesda, MD, July 13-14, 2006.

    H. Yi, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, and J. N. Culver, "Chitosan-mediated Patterned Viral Nanotemplate Assembly onto Inorganic Substrates through Nucleic Acid Hybridization," Proceedings of the IEEE/NLM Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop, pp. 54-55, Bethesda, MD, July 13-14, 2006.

    J. J. Park, X. Luo, H. Yi, R. Ghodssi, and G.W. Rubloff, "In situ Biomolecule Assembly and Activity within Completely Packaged Microfluidic Devices," Proceedings of the IEEE/NLM Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop, pp. 88-89, Bethesda, MD, July 13-14, 2006.

    S. T. Koev, V. Badilita, M. A. Powers, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, G. W. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan for Biofunctionalization of MEMS," 2006 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2006), Open Poster Session, Hilton Head, SC, June 4-8, 2006.

    S. T. Koev, M. A. Powers, J. J. Park, H. Yi, L. Wu, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, G. W. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan as a Functional Interface between Biology and Microsystems," 2nd ASM - IEEE EMBS Conference on Bio, Micro and Nanosystems, p. 35, San Francisco, CA, January 15-18, 2006.

    L.-Q. Wu, H. Yi, T. Chen, W. Losert, D. English, G. W. Rubloff, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley, and G. F. Payne, "Chitosan-mediated and spatially selective assembly of nanoparticles," American Chemical Society 230th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, August 28-September 1, 2005.

    H. Yi, M. A. Powers, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, G. F. Payne, J. N. Culver, W. E. Bentley, "Chitosan-Mediated Biofabrication: Interfacing Devices and Biology," AIChE Annual Meeting 2005, Cincinnati, OH, October 31 - November 4, 2005.

    S. T. Koev, M. A. Powers, H. Yi, and R. Ghodssi, "Toward a Chitosan-Based Micromechanical Biosensor," American Vacuum Society 52nd International Symposium, Boston, MA, October 30 - November 4, 2005.

    J. J. Park, T. M. Valentine, R. Ghodssi, and G. W. Rubloff, "Integrated Chip and Package Design for Surface-Controlled Bioreaction Processes with Robust, Reusable Fluidic Sealing," The 9th International Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems (MicroTAS), pp. 644-646, Boston, MA, October 9-13, 2005.

    M. A. Powers, S. T. Koev, A. Scheunitz, H. Yi, V. Hodzic, W. E. Bentley, G.F. Payne, G. W. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Chitosan Based MEMS Biophotonic Sensor," The International Conference on Bio-Nano-Informatics Fusion, Marina Del Rey, CA, July 20-22, 2005.

    M. A. Powers, A. Schleunitz, H. Yi, C. Wu, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, R. Ghodssi, "Toward a Biophotonic MEMS Cell Sensor," SPIE Microtechnologies for the New Millennium, pp. 119-126, Seville, Spain, May 9-11, 2005.

    J. J. Park, T. M. Valentine, M. Anderle, R. Ghodssi, and G. Rubloff, "Combinatorial Studies of Biopolymer Deposition and Surface Fictionalization for Bimolecular Reactions in BioMEMS Environments," IVC16, The  16th  International Vacuum Congress, p. 240, Venice, Italy, June 28 - July 2, 2004.

    H. Yi, L.-Q. Wu, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, G. F. Payne, and W. E. Bentley, "A Novel Biomolecule Assembly Technique onto Biosensor Surfaces," American Chemical Society (ACS) National meeting, San Diego, CA, March 13-17, 2005.

    H. Yi, L-Q. Wu, T. Chen, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, G. F. Payne, and W. E. Bentley, "Spatially Resolved Biomolecule Assembly for Simple and Robust Biological Threat Detection," American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Biodefense 2004, Baltimore, MD, March 7-10 2004.

    H. Yi, L-Q. Wu, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, G. F. Payne, and W. E. Bentley, "A Novel Platform for Assembling Biological Species onto Biosensor Surfaces," AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 16-21, 2003.

    L-Q. Wu, H. Yi, M. J. Kastantin, S. Li, D. A. Small, J. J. Park, G. W. Rubloff, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley and G. F. Payne, "Chitosan - A Biomaterial Interface that can be Selectively Deposited onto Micropatterned Surfaces and Conjugated to Sensing Biomolecules, "American Vacuum Society 50th International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 2-7, 2003.

    C. Pederzolli, L. Lunelli, G. Speranza, R. Canteri, M. Anderle, J. J. Park, L-Q. Wu, H. Yi, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne and G. W. Rubloff, "Material and Surface Characterization of Electrodeposited Polysaccharide Chitosan Film as a Platform for Biomolecular Reactions in BioMEMS Systems," American Vacuum Society 50th International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 2-7, 2003.

    G. F. Payne, T. Chen, L-Q. Wu, D. A. Small, H. Yi, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff and W. E. Bentley, "Assembly and Disassembly of Hydrogels to Entrap, Grow, and Release Cells," American Vacuum Society 50th International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 2-7, 2003.

    L-Q. Wu, R. Fernandes, H. Yi, D. A. Small, G. W. Rubloff, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley and G. F. Payne, "Chitosan at the Interface of Microfabrication and Biotechnology," Advances in Chitin Science, EUCHIS.03, Montreal, Canada, August 2003.

    L-Q. Wu, H. Yi, S. Li, D. A. Small, J. J. Park, G. W. Rubloff, R. Ghodssi, W. E. Bentley and G. F. Payne, "Voltage-Programmable Biofunctionality in MEMS Environments Using Electrodeposition of a Reactive Polysaccharide," Transducers '03, The 12th Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems, pp. 1871-1874, Boston, MA, June 8-12, 2003.

    H. Yi, L-Q. Wu, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, G. F. Payne and W. E. Bentley, "Novel Assembly Platform for Integrating Biological Species within MEMS Devices," ACS's 225th National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 23-27, 2003.

    H. Yi, L.-Q. Wu, S. Li, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, G. F. Payne, and W. E. Bentley, "Electro-Deposited Chitosan as a Scaffold for Biomolecule Assembly," Mid-Atlantic Biochemical Engineering Consortium (MABEC) Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, March 14, 2003.

    L-Q. Wu, A. P. Gadre, H. Yi, M. J. Kastantin, S. Li, G. W. Rubloff, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne and R. Ghodssi, "Voltage-Dependent Assembly of the Polysaccharide Chitosan onto an Electrode Surface," American Vacuum Society 49th International Symposium, Denver, CO, November 3-8, 2002.

    A. Gadre, M. Kastantin, S. Li and R. Ghodssi, "An Integrated BioMEMS Fabrication Technology," Proceedings of the 2001 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS), pp. 186-189, Washington D.C., December 5-7, 2001.

    A. Gadre, M. Kastantin, S. Li, E. Smela and R. Ghodssi, "An Integrated MEMS Fabrication Technology Using SU8 Negative Resist and Conducting Polymers," American Vacuum Society 48th International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, October 28 - November 2, 2001.