Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion

   Collaborators
   Research Overview
    The development of efficient and long-lasting energy storage is paramount for miniaturization of battery devices for small-scale power applications. At MSAL, we are developing novel technologies for nanostructured micro-battery and supercapacitor as well as diagnostic platform for lithium-ion battery electrodes.

    Our approach of developing electrochemical energy storage devices are based on a biological molecule, the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which is chemically stable and can be coated by a variety of materials making it compatible with various microfabrication techniques including electroless plating and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Biotemplating of inorganic energy storage materials on top of the TMV can be used to produce lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes with the high power characteristics of nanomaterials. We have successfully demonstrated a 3-fold increase in energy density of LIB microelectrodes by increasing the surface area of electrodes without increasing electrode footprint.

    Another energy storage our group focuses on is supercacitor. Electrochemical supercapacitors offer higher energy density than other capacitors such as electronic double layer, electrolytic, and stacked dielectric. Integration of a supercapacitor within flexible polylimide-based circuitry would produce a thin, solid, flexible energy storage component for rugged electronics applications. We have demonstrated the fabrication of an all-solid supercapacitor based on TMV-templated ruthenium oxide and Nafion electrolyte. The nanostructured thin films enable high power densities and efficient use of footprint space.

    In parallel to new micro-battery and supercapacitor technologies, we are exploring novel approaches that can measure in-situ stress/strains of battery materials in real-time. We have successfully designed, fabricated and demonstrated a MEMS platform to measure the reversible strain change correlated with lithium intercalation and extraction in thin-film silicon electrodes.

    In addition, particular focus has been placed on the development of energy scavenging systems that are based on hybrid electrostatic/piezoelectric mechanisms. These microsystems are designed to harvest energy from ambient vibrations and are intended for integration in wireless sensor networks for remote and autonomous operation.

   Thesis
    K. Gerasopoulos, "Nanostructured Nickel Zinc Microbatteries Using the Tobacco mosaic virus," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, August 2008.

    K. Gerasopoulos, "Integration and Characterization of Tobacco mosaic virus Based Nanostructured Materials in Three-dimensional Microbattery Architectures," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, February 2012.

    S. Baron, "A platform towards in situ stress/strain measurement in lithium ion battery electrodes," Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, August 2012.


   Journal Papers
      Conference Papers
    S. Chu, K. Gerasopoulos, M. Gnerlich, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Characterization of Tobacco Mosaic Virus-templated Ni/NiO Eletrodes for Solid Flexible Supercapacitors," American Vacuum Society 61st International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 9-14, 2014.

    M. Gnerlich, E. Tolstaya, J. N. Culver, D. Ketchum, and Reza Ghodssi, "Solid Micro-supercapacitor using Directed Self-Assembly of Tobacco Mosaic Virus and RuO2," American Vacuum Society 61st International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, November 9-14, 2014.

    H. Jung, K. Gerasopoulos, M. Gnerlich, A. Talin, and R. Ghodssi, "In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure Changes in a V2O5 Battery Electrode Using a MEMS Optical Sensor," Hilton Head Workshop 2014: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, pp. 367-370, Hilton Head, SC, June 8-12, 2014.

    M. Gnerlich, J. Culver, D. Ketchum, and R. Ghodssi, "Microfabrication Integration of Nanostructured RuO2 Using Directed Self-Assembly of Tobacco mosaic virus," The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013 Late News), London, UK, December 3-6, 2013.

    H. Jung, M. Gnerlich, K. Gerasopoulos, and R. Ghodssi, "Real-time MEMS monitoring of mechanical changes in V2O5 battery electrodes during electrochemical cycling," The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013 Late News), London, UK, December 3-6, 2013.

    E. Pomerantseva, M. Khalid, M. Gnerlich, K. Gerasopoulos, P. Kofinas, and R. Ghodssi, "Hierarchically architectured MEMS-based lithium-ion microbattery with solid polymer electrolyte", 2013 MRS Fall Meeting, Boston, MA, December 1-6, 2013.

    E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, M. Gnerlich, P. Odenwald, J. Culver, R. Ghodssi, "Using Tobacco mosaic virus template for the fabrication of three-dimensional hierarchical microbattery electrodes with high energy and high power density", Proceeding of SPIE 8820, Nanoepitaxy: Materials and Devices V, 88200T, San Diego, CA, September 19, 2013.

    H. Jung, E. Pomerantseva, M. Gnerlich, S. Baron, K. Gerasopoulos, and R. Ghodssi, "Novel Method for In situ Mechanical Characterization of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes Using MEMS Platform," 2013 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1-5, 2013.

    H. Ben-Yoav, E. Pomerantseva, M. Gnerlich, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanotemplates for Next Generation Energy Storage and Electrochemical Sensing," 2012 ONR Naval Science and Technology Partnership Conference, Arlington, VA, October 22-24, 2012.

    S. Baron, E. Pomerantseva, M. Gnerlich, K. Gerasopoulos, H. Jung, and R. Ghodssi, "A platform for in situ, Real-time Measurement of Electrochemical Reaction-induced Stress/strain in Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes", Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2012), pp. 199-202, Atlanta, GA, December 2-5, 2012.

    M. Gnerlich, E. Pomerantseva, K. Gregorczyk, G. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Towards a Flexible All-solid-state Electrochemical Supercapacitor Using Tobacco mosaic virus Nanostructures and ALD Ruthenium oxide", Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2012), pp. 291-294, Atlanta, GA, December 2-5, 2012.

    E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, M. Gnerlich, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco mosaic virus nanotemplates for next generation energy storage microdevices," Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences International Forum, pp. 10-11, College Park, MD, February 29-March 2, 2012.

    K. Gerasopoulos, E. Pomerantseva, A. Brown, J. N. Culver, X. Chen, C. Wang, X. Chen, G. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco mosaic virus-based nanostructured materials for Li-ion batteries," Energy Frontier Research Centers Review Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, February 21-22, 2012.

    K. Gerasopoulos, E. Pomerantseva, M. McCarthy, A. Brown, C. Wang, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Biotemplated Hierarchical Electrodes for Three-dimensional Li-ion Microbatteries," 2012 MRS Spring Meeting, San Fransisco CA, April 9-13, 2012.

    E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, X. Chen, J. N. Culver, C. Wang, G. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Tobacco mosaic virus as a versatile tool for energy materials characterization," 2012 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 9-13, 2012.

    E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, X. Chen, G. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, "Atomic layer deposition for uniform coating of biotemplated nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion microbatteries," 11th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, pp. 151, Cambridge, MA, June 26-29, 2011.

    E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, X. Chen, G. Rubloff, J. N. Culver, C. Wang, and R. Ghodssi, "Nanoarchitectured 3D Electrodes for Li-ion Microbatteries," Energy Frontier Research Centers Summit & Forum, Washington D.C., May 25-27, 2011.

    E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, X. Chen, G. Rubloff, J. N. Culver, C. Wang, and R.Ghodssi, "Nanostructured Tobacco Mosaic Virus templates for superior lithium-ion microbattery electrodes," American Chemical Society 42nd Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting, pp. 229-230, College Park, MD, May 21-24, 2011.

    K. Gerasopoulos, E. Pomerantseva, M. McCarthy, J. N. Culver, C. Wang, and R. Ghodssi, "A Hierarchical Approach for the Fabrication of Three-dimensional Microbattery Electrodes," to be presented at The 16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2011), pp. 727-730, June 5-9, Beijing, China.

    R. Ghodssi, J. N. Culver, K. Gerasopoulos, X. Z. Fan, and A. Brown, "Nanofabrication Using Viral Biotemplates for MEMS Applications," Proceedings of the 2011 NSF CMMI Research and Innovation Conference, Atlanta, GA, January 4-7, 2011.

    K. Gerasopoulos, X. Chen, J. N. Culver, C. Wang, and R. Ghodssi, "Highly Stable Nanostructured Ni/TiO2 Anodes on Biological Templates," Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS 2010), pp. 303-306, Leuven, Belgium, November 30 - December 3.

    K. Gerasopoulos, X. Z. Fan, A. Brown, X. Chen, C. Wang, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Biofabrication using the Tobacco mosaic virus for MEMS Applications," Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Biofabrication, Philadelphia, PA, USA, October 4-6.

    X. Chen, K. Gerasopoulos, J. Guo, A. Brown, C. Wang, R. Ghodssi, and J. N. Culver, "Porous Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries," 218th Electrochemical Society Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, October 10 - 15, 2010.

    M. McCarthy, R. Enright, K. Gerasopoulos, J. N. Culver, R. Ghodssi and E. Wang, "Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Viral Nanotemplates for Self-cleaning and Drop-wise Condensation," Proceedings of the 2010 Solid-State Sensor, Actuator, and Microsystems Workshop (Hilton Head 2010), pp. 86-89, Hilton Head, SC, June 6-10, 2010.

    M. Khbeis, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "Characterization of a Hybrid Ambient Low Frequency, Low Intensity Vibration Energy Scavenger System", Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), pp. 17-20, Washington D.C., December 1-4, 2009.

    X. Chen, K. Gerasopoulos, J. Guoa, R. Ghodssi, J. N. Culver, and C. Wang, "Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Supported Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries", Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), pp. 145-148, Washington D.C., December 1-4, 2009.

    K. Gerasopoulos, J. Guo, J. N. Culver, C. Wang, and R. Ghodssi, "Electrodeposition of Nano-sized Zinc Anodes on Viral Templates", Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), pp. 447-450, Washington D.C., December 1-4, 2009.

    M. Khbeis, J. McGee, and R. Ghodssi, "Development of a Simplified Hybrid Ambient Low Frequency, Low Intensity Vibration Energy Scavenger System", The 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers '09), pp. 525-528, Denver, CO, June 21-25, 2009.

    K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Biofabrication with the Tobacco mosaic virus for high surface area MEMS applications", 2009 MRS Spring Meeting, San Fransisco, CA, April 13-17, 2009.

    K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, E. Royston, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Microbatteries with Tobacco Mosaic Virus Templated Electrodes", Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2008), pp. 960-963, Tucson, AZ, USA, January 13-17, 2008.

    K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, E. Royston, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, "Nanostructured Nickel-Zinc Microbatteries Using the Tobacco Mosaic Virus", Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS '07), pp. 347-350, Freiburg, Germany, November 28-29, 2007.

    M. Khbeis and R. Ghodssi, "Design of a hybrid ambient low frequency, low intensity vibration energy scavenger," Sixth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS '06), pp. 287-290, Berkeley, CA, USA, Nov 29-Dec 1, 2006.